This website was developed by Geno Jezek,
owner of the online magnet store, www.Custom-Magnets.com. Custom-Magnets has been supplying
magnetic material and custom fridge magnets since 1999.
A permanent magnet is made from materials that are magnetized, thereby creating its own persistent magnetic field -- for example, a refrigerator magnet. Ferromagnetic materials are those that are most strongly attracted to a magnet, and also those that can be magnetized. Examples include iron, nickel, cobalt, alloys, and some minerals such as the old-world lodestone.
Ferromagnetic materials can be split into "hard" or "soft" magnetic materials. Permanent magnets are "Hard". They stay magnetized and have high coercivity. They are made from hard materials that are subjected to special processing in a powerful magnetic manufacturing process which aligns their internal microcrystalline structure and makes them very hard to demagnetize.
To accomplish demagnetization, another magnetic field must be applied to the original, and the original must be receptive to it. Since permanent magnets have a high coercivity, they are not extremely receptive.
Types of Permanent Magnets:
Rare earth magnets are lanthanoid magnets, and are elements with a partially occupied 'f' electron shell that can accommodate fourteen or less electrons. These electrons' spin cycles can be aligned which results in strong magnetic fields, and as a result, these elements are used in high-strength, compacted size, magnets where the higher price of production isn't a concern. Most commonly, rare-earth magnets are created from samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron (NIB).
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