Permanent Magnets

What is A Magnet

Permanent Magnets

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Permanent Magnets

A permanent magnet is made from materials that are magnetized, thereby creating its own persistent magnetic field -- for example, a refrigerator magnet. Ferromagnetic materials are those that are most strongly attracted to a magnet, and also those that can be magnetized. Examples include iron, nickel, cobalt, alloys, and some minerals such as the old-world lodestone.

Ferromagnetic materials can be split into "hard" or "soft" magnetic materials. Permanent magnets are "Hard". They stay magnetized and have high coercivity. They are made from hard materials that are subjected to special processing in a powerful magnetic manufacturing process which aligns their internal microcrystalline structure and makes them very hard to demagnetize.

To accomplish demagnetization, another magnetic field must be applied to the original, and the original must be receptive to it. Since permanent magnets have a high coercivity, they are not extremely receptive.

Types of Permanent Magnets:

Composites
     - Ceramic or Ferrite
* a sintered composite of powdered iron oxide and barium/strontium carbonate ceramic
* non-corroding, but brittle and must be treated like ceramic

     - Alnico
* sintering or casting combinations of aluminum, nickel, and cobalt with iron and small amounts of other elements that are added to enhance the magnet's properties
* corrosive resistant with more forgiving (than ferrite) physical properties

     - Injection-Molded
* various types of resin and magnetic powder composites that allow parts of complex shapes to be manufactured via injection molding
* generally lower in strength and physically resemble plastics

     - Flexible
* similar to injection-molded magnets, use a flexible binder like vinyl, and produced in flat strips, sheets, or shapes
* extremely flexible but at reduced magnetic strength

Rare Earth

Rare earth magnets are lanthanoid magnets, and are elements with a partially occupied 'f' electron shell that can accommodate fourteen or less electrons. These electrons' spin cycles can be aligned which results in strong magnetic fields, and as a result, these elements are used in high-strength, compacted size, magnets where the higher price of production isn't a concern. Most commonly, rare-earth magnets are created from samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boron (NIB).

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